The Education at a Glance report, 2018, states that advanced degrees continue to attract more international students than Bachelor’s and equivalent degrees after research across 35 OECD countries. The international enrollments in bachelor’s program are below 5% in many countries, with exceptions including Austria, Luxembourg, and New Zealand with more than 15% of students. Based on the reports, there have been 26% of enrollment in doctoral programs in 2016, with 17% significant at master’s level and 6% of total enrollment in tertiary education in OECD countries.
Capacity constraints at advanced level of education, the availability of narrow specializations in host countries or post-migration programs are encountered to be the major factors accounting for these trends. Moreover, graduates pursuing higher education majorly contribute to R&D, innovation, and addressing socio-economic challenges, which creative strong incentives for host countries to invest in later stages of education.